In late August Katipuneros gathered in Caloocan and declared the start of the revolution. Immediately upon its publication, he became a target for the police who even shadowed him when he returned to the Philippines in 1887. This labor lasted for 40 days a year, later reduced to 15 days. The officials of the pueblo were proficient. In 1570 Martín de Goiti, whom Legazpi had dispatched to Luzon, conquered Manila, then a puppet-state of the Sultanate of Brunei. The Resistance against Spain did not immediately cease upon the conquest of the Austronesian cities. Hurley, V. (1937). The Portuguese navigator and explorer Ferdinand Magellan headed the first Spanish foray to the Philippines when he made landfall on Cebu in March 1521; a short time later he met an untimely death on the nearby island of Mactan. The encomienda system was abused by encomenderos and by 1700 was largely replaced by administrative provinces, each headed by an alcalde mayor (provincial governor)[26] The most prominent feature of Spanish cities was the plaza, a central area for town activities such as the fiesta, and where government buildings, the church, a market area and other infrastructures were located. By December 1897, the revolution had resulted to a stalemate between the colonial government and rebels. The governor ordered solemn funeral rites for the dead and payments to their widows and orphans. There was no legislative branch on that time since the laws of the islands were coming from Spain . City governments (ayuntamientos), were also headed by an alcalde mayor. THE SPANIARDS ASCOLONIAL MASTERS 2. [55][56] On November 1, the Tejeros government was supplanted by the Republic of Biak-na-Bato. The Governor-General was commonly a peninsular Spaniard, a Spaniard born in Spain, to ensure loyalty of the colony to the crown or tiara. [51][page needed], While the revolution spread throughout the provinces, Aguinaldo's Katipuneros declared the existence of an insurgent government in October regardless of Bonifacio's Katipunan,[52] which he had already converted into an insurgent government with him as president in August. Andres Bonifacio, (born Nov. 30, 1863, Manila—died May 10, 1897, Mt. The Galleon trade brought silver from New Spain, which was used to purchase Asian goods such as silk from China, spices from the Moluccas, lacquerware from Japan and Philippine cotton textiles. The alcalde mayor was usually an Insular (Spaniard born in the Philippines). Every barangay was further divided into "barrios", and the barrio government (village or district) rested on the barrio administrator (cabeza de barangay). The downfall of Marcos and return of democratic government. Philippines, Filipinos had a civilization of their own. Several revolts did break out, the most serious being in the village of Lindáo. Any native or Chinese mestizo, 25 years old, proficient in oral or written Spanish and has been a cabeza de barangay of 4 years can be a gobernadorcillo. Tokyo set up an ostensibly independent republic, which was opposed by underground and guerrilla activity that eventually reached large-scale proportions. By implication, it was a public office and the person became known as a n encomiendero who: 1. During the conquista, the first task of colonization was the reduction, or relocation of the indigenous population into settlements surrounding the plaza. For this reason, the Filipinos became followers to the Spaniards in their own country. On June 12, the armada attacked the Spanish port of Cavite. The legal foundation for municipal governments in the country was laid with the promulgation of the Maura Law on May 19, 1893. 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