My response: History is full of head-scratching moments and the fall of Malacca Sultanate is one of them. In 1409 Parameswara converted to Islam and began the Malacca Sultanate. He was a fugitive prince from the Palembang in Sumatra, and attack Palembang. The forces were commanded by Tun Perak and assisted by Tun Hamzah, a warrior by the nickname Datuk Bongkok. Malacca as a busy port and emerged as a trade center to replace Srivijaya in the commercial center was described inSulalatus Salatin as 15 century it was able to achieve greater success as a follows [5]:th result of rapidly growing trade factors. In addition to Kitab Darul Manzum, the Malay Annals also mentions the Kitab al-luma' fi tasawwuf ('Book of Flashes'), a 10th-century treatise on Sufism by Abu Nasr al-Sarraj. Among them were a ruler from the Moluccas Islands who were defeated by his enemies, a ruler of Rokan and a ruler named Tuan Telanai from Terengganu. The raids helped convince the Portuguese that the exiled Sultan's forces must be silenced once for all. [48] He also turned a number of states in the archipelago into his imperial dependencies. In 1819, just a few years before the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, the British East India Company had founded its first trading outpost there. Its territory extended from modern-day Southern Thailand in the north to most of eastern coast of Sumatra in the south after wrestling it from Majapahit and Ayuthaya sphere of influence. In any case, within decades, the sultanate he founded, the Sultanate of Malacca, became one of the major promoters of Islam in the region.As a powerful and expansive kingdom, the Sultanate of Malacca provided a common culture for the surrounding region that neighboring states attempted to adopt. Of the so-called Wali Sanga ('nine saints') responsible in spreading Islam on Java, at least two, Sunan Bonang and Sunan Kalijaga, are said to have studied in Malacca. In fact, although it was China's practice to consider most foreign countries as vassal states, including Italy and Portugal, its relations with Malacca were characterised by mutual respect and friendship, such as that between two sovereign countries. The ruler of such states would come to Malacca after their coronation to obtain the blessing of the Sultan of Malacca. When Malacca Sultanate manages to expand their territory a lot more trade routes are being created thus added to the prosperity of Malacca. Sumatra - Peninsular Malaysia - Malacca - Indian Ocean - Malay Peninsula - Malacca Sultanate - Pacific Ocean - Palembang - Malaysia - Thailand - Philippines - Srivijaya - Malaccamax - Sunda Strait - Singapore Strait - Piracy - Sea lane - Singapore - Choke point - Lombok Strait - Asia - Malacca City - History of Kedah - Thai Canal - Piracy in the Strait of Malacca The Vietnamese with full force battalion were heavily defeated by outnumbered Malacca battalion during an invasion of Lan Sang as reported in a Chinese account.[47]. [21] In 1411, Parameswara headed a royal party of 540 people and left for China with Admiral Zheng He to visit the Ming court. Malacca's management of its ethnically diverse merchant population – it is said that 84 different languages were spoken in Malacca during its heyday- is particularly telling. Great Britain developed into the dominant power on the Strait of Malacca, with Malacca, Penang (George Town) and Singapore as its most important trading posts. When Portugal conquered Malacca in 1511, the Chinese responded with violence against the Portuguese when Portugal sent the diplomatic ambassador, Tomé Pires in 1516. Among the facilities provided for merchants were warehouses, where they could safely house their goods as they awaited favourable trade winds, as well as elephants for transporting goods to the warehouses. They could not become self-sufficient and remained highly dependent on Asian suppliers, as had their Malay predecessors. Malacca became the chief port through which India and the Middle East received silk from China and spices from the Malay Archipelago. 36 . Islam began to spread in the region through trade not long after the life of Prophet Muhammad (S). [17], Following establishment of his new city in Malacca, Parameswara initiated the development of the place and laid the foundation of a trade port. The Malacca Sultanate (Malay: Kesultanan Melayu Melaka; Jawi script: كسلطانن ملايو ملاك) was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia.Conventional historical thesis marks c. 1400 as the founding year of the sultanate by a renegade Malay Raja of Singapura, Parameswara who was also known as Iskandar Shah. [67] Through its traditions, laws, and royal rituals and customs, the Malaccan court set the example for later Muslim sultanates in the region to follow. However, the Malacca Sultanate would not last, as the newly powerful Portugal conquered the kingdom in 1511 and began a centuries-long period of European domination. This rapid progression was attributable to several factors, key among which were its strategic location along one of the World's most important shipping lanes, Malacca Straits and the increasing demand for commodities from both the East and the West. Other goods traded in Malacca included porcelain, silk and iron from China and natural products of the Malay archipelago, such as camphor, sandalwood, spices, fish, fish roe and seaweed. Instead, Malacca sent envoys to China in 1481 to report on the Vietnamese aggression and their invasion plan against Malacca, as well as to confront the Vietnamese envoys who happened to be present in the Ming court. [64] Thirdly, Islam brought many great transformation into Malaccan society and culture, and ultimately it became a definitive marker of a Malay identity. He was the leader among them and was conferred the office of laksamana ('admiral') by the Sultan. Trade, especially foreign trade, played an enormous role. The expansion of Islam into the interiors of Java in the 15th century led to the gradual decline of Majapahit, before it finally succumbed to the emerging local Muslim forces in the early 16th century. Much of the mercantile activity in Malacca, therefore, relied on the flow of goods from other parts of the region. Singapore is no older than the lifetime of a man, and Ipoh has won its notoriety within the memory of a boy; while Malacca is historic. The Malacca Sultanate (Kesultanan Melayu Melaka; Jawi script: کسلطانن ملايو ملاک) was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia. In the 14th century, Singapura developed concurrently with the Pax Mongolica era and rose from a small trading outpost into a centre of international trade with strong ties with the Yuan Dynasty. Tin ingots were a trading currency unique to Malacca. Rice, mainly for local consumption, was imported. Rulers who have been overthrown also came to Malacca requesting the Sultan's aid in reclaiming their throne. Years later, during the reign of Manuel I, a fidalgo named Diogo Lopes de Sequeira was assigned to analyse the trade potentials in Madagascar and Malacca. It also had a well-equipped and well-managed port. Malacca procrastinated, thinking it could withstand a Portuguese assault, which started three months later on 25 July 1511. These two epics, still read today, tell of heroes fighting in the defence of Islam.[64]. This was during the mid-1400s. Malacca was later conquered by the Dutch in a joint military campaign in January 1641. The advent of Islam coupled with flourishing trade that used Malay as medium of communication, culminated the domination of Malacca and other succeeding Malay-Muslim sultanates in the Maritime Southeast Asia. The Malaccan army was unprepared for the surprise attack and the invasion concluded on 24 August when de Albuquerque's troops, marching six abreast through the streets, swept aside all resistance. In the 15th Century, Malacca had grown to become the prime trade hub of the region owing to her control of the Straits of Malacca, through which all trade between India and China was concentrated. During its prime, Malacca was a powerful Sultanate which extended its rule over the southern Malay Peninsula and much of Sumatra. It began with a daytime procession, led by the Temenggung on elephant-back, conveying the Sultan's prayer mat to the mosque for Tarawih performed after the mandatory night prayers. In 1511, the Portuguese decided to conquer the important port of Malacca to control the trade with China. Wikipedia. For centuries, the people of Southeast Asia slowly began to accept Islam and create Muslim towns and kingdoms.Perhaps the most important of these kingdoms was the Sultanate of Malacca (Melaka in Malay), which reached its peak in the mid-1400s. [12][13][14] The fifth and last king, Parameswara fled to the west coast of the Malay Peninsula. Among Malacca's most crucial functions was its role as both a collection centre for cloves, nutmeg and mace from the Spice Islands and a redistribution centre for cotton textiles from ports in Gujarat, the Coromandel Coast, Malabar Coast and Bengal. Albuquerque had already learned of Malacca's strategic importance to the spice trade. [59] Moreover, Chinese traders boycotted Malacca after it fell under Portuguese control, with some Chinese in Java even assisting in Muslim attempts to invade the city.[60]. Malacca became the chief port through which India and the Middle East received silk from China and spices from the Malay Archipelago. ibid. Unlike Malacca, Singapore – an island at the southern tip of the Strait of Malacca – was still rather insignificant in economic terms at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Search. Firstly, Islam transformed the notion of kingship so that the Sultan was no longer viewed as divine, but as God's Khalifah (vice-gerent on earth). The Malacca Sultanate was a powerful maritime and commercial empire that Shaped the political, social and cultural systems of the Malay Peninsula. In 1405, Yongle Emperor of Ming Dynasty (r. 1402–1424) sent his envoy headed by Yin Qing to Malacca. The Sultan then retreated to Kampar in Sumatra where he died two years later. The Golden Age of the Malacca Sultanate unfortunately lasted only for less then a century. Many traders anchored in Malacca, especially traders from Arabia , China and India , traded at the port of Malacca and from there were born many of the descendants and tribes that exist in Malacca to this day. Islam began to spread in the region through trade not long after the life of Prophet Muhammad (S). Parameswara fled to the island of Temasik with his … [16] Another account of the naming origin of Malacca elaborates that during the reign of Sultan Muhammad Shah (r. 1424–1444), the Arab merchants called the kingdom 'Malakat' (Arabic for 'congregation of merchants') because it was home to many trading communities. The Sultan appointed Tun Hamzah to rule Pahang. At the same time, the literary tradition of Malacca developed the Classical Malay that eventually became the lingua franca of the region. At first they attempted to create friendly relationships with the sultan of Malacca, Mahmud Shah and use that as a foothold in the kingdom. Its port city had become the centre of regional and international trade, attracting regional traders as well as traders from other Eastern civilisations such as the Chinese Empire and the Ryukyu and Western civilisations such as Persian, Gujarat and Arabs. The laws as written in the legal digests went through an evolutionary process. In the spice trade, Malacca served as a gateway between the Spice Islands and high-paying Eurasian markets. The Malacca Sultanate (Malay: Kesultanan Melayu Melaka; Jawi script: کسلطانن ملايو ملاک) was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia.Conventional historical thesis marks c. 1400 as the founding year of the sultanate by a Malay Raja of Singapura (King of Singapore), Parameswara, also known as Iskandar Shah. Despite allying with neighboring Muslim states, the Sultanate was unable to resist the superior Portuguese weapons and firepower, and by late August the city was conquered. As a result, on July 25th, 1511, the Portuguese commander, Afonso de Albuquerque, began an assault on the city. The Tamil Muslims who were now powerful in the Malaccan court and friendly with Tun Mutahir, the Bendahara, were hostile towards the Christian Portuguese.The Gujarati merchants who were also Muslims and had known the Portuguese in India, preached a holy war against "the infidels". Tradition holds that he named the settlement after the tree he was leaning against while witnessing the portentous event. After establishing bases in Indian cities such as Goa and Calicut around 1510, the Portuguese looked to the East to expand their trade empire. Malacca was the first Malay Muslim state that achieved the status of a regional maritime power. Today, the mouse deer is part of modern Malacca's coat of arms. Islam spread from Malacca to Jambi, Kampar, Bengkalis, Siak, Aru and the Karimun Islands in Sumatra, throughout much of the Malay peninsula, Java and even Philippines. Malacca Sultanate The Malacca Sultanate (Malay: Kesultanan Melayu Melaka; Jawi script: کلم ويلم نناطلسک) was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia.Conventional historical thesis marks c. 1400 as the founding year of the sultanate by a Malay Raja of Singapura (King of Singapore), Parameswara, also known as Iskandar Shah. The expansionist policy of Mansur Shah was maintained throughout his reign when he later added Kampar and Siak to his realm. The military prowess of the sultanate was further strengthened by the nine elite knights of the kingdom. The king together with his royal family, senior officials and the subjects of Malacca listened to his teachings. It is through these intellectual, spiritual and cultural developments, the Malaccan era witnessed the enculturation of a Malay identity,[3][4] the Malayisation of the region and the subsequent formation of an Alam Melayu. On the other hand, the Malay Annals noted that it was during the reign of the third ruler Muhammad Shah (r. 1424–44), that the ruling class and the subjects began accepting Islam. Between 1424 and 1433, two more royal visits to China were made during the reign of the third ruler, Raja Tengah (r. The Fall of the Malacca Sultanate. Malacca's most prominent Laksamana was the legendary Hang Tuah. Malacca Sultanateball was an Islamic countryball in Malaysiaball. [5], In the year of 1511, the capital of Malacca fell to the Portuguese Empire, forcing the last Sultan, Mahmud Shah (r. 1488–1511), to retreat to the further reaches of his empire, where his progeny established new ruling dynasties, Johor and Perak. Maulana Abu Bakar served in the court of Sultan Mansur Shah and introduced the Kitab Darul Manzum, a theological text translated from the work of an Arab scholar in Mecca. The Malay Annals even reveals that the courts of Malacca and Pasai posed theological questions and problems to one another. One of the example was recorded during the reign of Muhammad Shah. [51] Despite numerous attacks, the fort was only breached once, when the Dutch and Johor defeated the Portuguese in 1641. [42] While Malacca was at the peak of its splendour, Sultan Mansur Shah died in 1477. In 1275, he decreed the Pamalayu expedition to overrun Sumatra. The legendary Princess of Gunung Ledang was said to have lived during the reign of Mahmud Shah and once wooed by the sultan himself. The Sultanate of Malacca at its greatest extent in the late 1400s. [36][37][38], Malacca reached its height of glory at the beginning the middle of the 15th century. A number of attempts were made to suppress the Malay forces, but it wasn't until 1526 that the Portuguese finally razed Bintan to the ground. Malacca sultanate also emerged as the primary base in continuing the historic struggles of its predecessors, Singapura and Srivijaya, against their Java-based nemeses. However, after being warned by Tamil Muslims who had seen Portuguese atrocities in Goa, Sultan Mahmud refused to allow the Portuguese into the city. Center, including the main mosque and government buildings, was imported parts... And China a center for the spread of goods from other parts of the most important in. Near Malacca Sultanate was governed with several set of laws maritime and commercial empire that Shaped the and... Under Sultanate Malacca ], — Qiu Dao long, the Portuguese arrived as important lesson to the of... Number of ports among bitter warfare in the spice Islands and high-paying Eurasian markets to! And 1549 on entrepôt trade and became the chief of public police and state.... The far East during the reign of Sultan Muzaffar Shah was a feudal state with strong! 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